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Roasted Coffee Beans Process

Roasted Coffee Beans
The roasting process is fundamental to preparing ready-to-make coffee. Perfect roast coffee is a matter of choice and preference. Generally lighter roasts are sharper and more acidic while darker roasts have a fuller flavor but less caffeine. One of the darkest roasts is French roasted coffee. But roast alone does not determine the taste or quality of coffee.

Light Roast: This roast is generally preferred for milder coffee varieties. There will be no oil on the surface of these beans, because they are not roasted long enough for the oils to break through to the surface.

Medium Roast: This roast produces a non-oily surface. It is often referred to as the “American Roast” because it is the one generally preferred in the United States.

Medium–Dark Roast: This roast produces some oil on the surface and has a slight bittersweet aftertaste.

Dark Roast: This roast has an oily surface and a pronounced bitterness. The darker the roast, the less acidity will be found in the coffee.

Temperatures for Roasting in Fahrenheit and Celsius
  Fahrenheit Celsius
Green Coffee, Unroasted 75


Begins to Pale 270


Early Yellow 327 163.89
Yellow-Tan 345


Light Brown 370


Brown 393


1st Crack Starts 401


1st Crack Done 415 212.78
City Roast 426 218.89
City+ 435


Full City 446


Full City+ 454


Vienna (Light French) 465


Full French 474


Charcoal, dead 486


Fire risk 497


Transformation after Roasting: Roasted coffee beans expand to nearly double their original size, changing in color, taste, smell and density. Un-roasted beans contain all of coffee’s acids, protein, and caffeine — but none of its taste! It is only roasting that produces the chemical reactions to unlock the characteristic coffee flavor.

Fresh Roasts: Green coffee is more stable than roasted and so the roasting process should be closer to where it will be consumed. This reduces the time in distribution that helps to maximize shelf life. The vast majority of coffee is roasted commercially on a large scale, but real coffee drinkers roast coffee themselves in order to savor the freshness of roasted beans.

Coffee Roasting Process: This involves cleaning, roasting, cooling, grinding, and packaging. Bags of green coffee beans are put in hoppers and screened to remove debris. From the hoppers they are conveyed to roasters. Roasters typically operate at temperatures between 370 and 540 °F (188 and 282 °C). The beans are roasted for a period of time ranging from a few minutes to about 30 minutes.

The roasting cycle ends with water sprays used to cool the beans followed by being run through a de-stoner to remove fragments and other waste not removed during initial screening. It is then that the roasted beans are either ground or packaged as whole beans. Roasted whole beans can be considered fresh for up to, but not exceeding one month.

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